Vitamin A

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Retinoli.JPG
Figure 1. All-trans-retinol, C20H30O, Mw =286,45 g/mol.

The group of vitamin A includes retinol, its esters and some isomers. Vitamin A substances from animal sources are called retinoids and these include all-trans-retinol, retinylesters and cis-isomers. Carotenoids (provitamin A) are present in plants, such as fruits and vegetables, and this group includes β-carotene, α-carotene, γ-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin.

Synonyms for vitamin A:

  • retinol, axerophthol, vitamin A1.

Summary - measurement of all-trans-retinol and 13-cis-retinol

Summary - measurement of beta-carotene



Golden standard

There are two European Standards concerning the determination of vitamin A. Methods are described in child pages where you can get by clicking the links below:

EN 12823-1:2000 Foodstuffs - Determination of vitamin A by high performance liquid chromatography - Part 1: Measurement of all-trans-retinol and 13-cis-retinol

EN 12823-2:2000 Foodstuffs - Determination of vitamin A by high performance liquid chromatography - Part 2: Measurement of Beta-carotene

Proficiency testing schemes 

Here are listed some completed, on-going and/or upcoming proficiency testing schemes concerning vitamin A:

Livsmedelsverket, National Food Agency of Sweden - Report 24 (2011) Vitamins in Foods - Round V-9

PTA - Proficiency Testing Australia: Report No. 651, Food Proficiency Testing Program, Round 31 - Vitamins

DRRR - Deutsches Referenzbüro für Lebensmittel-Ringversuche und Referenzmaterialien

DLA - Dienstleistung Lebensmittel Analytik GbR: 32/2012 Food Supplement I: Vitamins A, D3, E, K1 and beta-Carotin

LGC - Dairy Chemistry PT schemes (QDCS)

Some upcoming proficiency testing schemes can be found in the EPTIS database.

Other methods available

  • AACC 86-01.02 Vitamin A---Ultraviolet Absorption Method
  • AACC 86-02.01 Vitamin A---Carr-Price Method
  • AACC 86-03.01 Vitamin A in Enriched Flour
  • AACC 86-05.01 Vitamin A and Carotene
  • AACC 86-06.01 Analysis of Vitamins A and E by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
  • AOAC 960.45 Vitamin A in margarine
    • spectrophotometric
  • AOAC 974.29 Vitamin A in mixed feed, premixes, and human and pet foods (Codex adopted - AOAC Method)
    • colorimetric
  • AOAC 992.04 Vitamin A (retinol isomers) in milk and milk-based infant formula (Codex adopted - AOAC Method)
    • liquid chromatographic
  • AOAC 992.06 Vitamin A (retinol) in milk-based infant formula (Codex adopted - AOAC Method)
    • liquid chromatographic
  • AOAC 2001.13 Determination of vitamin A in foods
    • liquid chromatographic
  • ISO 12080-1:2009 Dried skimmed milk - Determination of vitamin A content -- part 1: Colorimetric method
  • ISO 12080-2:2009 Dried skimmed milk - Determination of vitamin A content -- part 2: Method using high performance liquid chromatography
  • ISO 6558-2:1992 Fruits, vegetables and derived products -- Determination of carotene content -- Part 2: Routine methods

 Literature

  •  see separate child page below

EuroFIR assistance to this method/guidelines